While many technologies that would lead to the development of transhuman beings had begun development on old earth, it wasn't until the exodus and colonisation that those technologies developed further.
Spearheaded by Novus, Valiance and Liberty for their economic, social and military potential, human modification was explored and technologies were developed. In the end, two methods appeared; Augmentation and Creation.
Augmentation consisted of taking live, most often adult, humans and modifying their bodies with cybernetic equipment. Creation took a new route; creating new synthetic humans with altered genes.
Out of this two new sub-race of humans were born; Augmenteds and Bioroids.
Augs as they are commonly called are humans who were graphed with bits of technology. The process is extremely painful, invasive and require months or years of rehabilitation as well as being highly expensive.
Augmenteds are generally given a set of implants to improve their performance in the field they already specialized and are rarely given broad spectrum of chrome. Augmentation is performed by governments and corporations for the most part, but a few private groups have also used the technology, such as the cult of the Machine and the Navigator's Guild.
Two implants are especially common, one is the Hecate System chip that is installed where the brain and the spine join and serves to receive, translate and transmit the mental input to useful information for electronic parts and vice versa. All Augs posses this chip as it allow them to control cybernetic implants like regular flesh and blood limbs.
The other common implant is the Atlas Load system which consist of reinforcement through the entire body especially the skeleton to allow heavier cybernetic to be implanted without them rending the flesh holding it in place.
Bioroids (Also called Roids or Synths) are humans who's embrionic DNA was manipulated. Unlike Augs and baseline humans, Roids are created in labs and incubated in tanks. Many modification were made to them as they primarily served as early colonist on the nation's moons and other planets.
Bioroids have a shortened lifespan, reaching full maturity at age 5 and usually dying before reaching 25 (which manifest as organs failure, problems in cell division and etc, rather than conventional ageing as they usually look to be around their late 40's by human standards.) They require very little sleep, (around 4 hours per 24 hour day) and are generally far more capable of remaining fit, healing wounds and survive hostile environments. As a safety (or paranoia) measure, bioroids cannot reproduce. Their physical appearance does not different from non-augmented humans but by law are all branded with a set of Greek letters and number, most often on the right cheek.
They are also often calmer, more detached and less inclined to react with strong emotions as their hormones levels and neurotransmitors are carefully monitored, adjusted or suppressed to keep them agreeable.
Although Bioroids technically have the same rights as humans and augs, they are rarely cultivated out of good intention and often have depts for their birth. Most bioroids outside of frontier colonies are specialists but quite a few workers exist.
Bioroid are unable to be cybernetically augmented, their enhanced growth, metabolism and healing cause the accumulation of scar tissues on the Hecate chip and the various other gizmo that have been tried.
Racism in new Helios
The conditions aboard the Arks and subsequent life in the crowded and hostile environment of the preterraformed planets of New Helios quickly drove the old hostilities that existed amongst the exiles and skin color and previous class quickly became obsolete concepts.
The four core nations, while all having some ethnocultural influences have more or less devoted into mostly homogeneous population. It is surprisingly common to see people with combinations of dark skins, pale or red hair and almond shaped eyes. Only Valiance seems to have held onto the idea of race, favoring those of Japanese and Russian descent for their nobility, although the standard of purity are rather loose.
However, a new shape of racism arose during the nearly ten centuries since the original planetfall. Fueled by bio-conservationism, fear of becoming obsolete or taken over, post-humans are subjected to various form of legal and illegal discrimination. The most notable being the sterilization of bioroids.
Post-humans are often subject to even much more discrimination in poorer locales and seen as being privileged as very few bioroids and Augs find themselves poor due to their improved competences and the fact that bioroids are exempt from military service. Post-humans are even forbidden from entering the moon of New Jerusalem where to local religious-leaders have exiled themselves to be free of what they perceive as corruption.
Augs who suffer hate crimes are often attacked with blunt or piercing objects where the Hecate system chip is installed, effectively crippling them.